Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel

Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel
SUBJECT AREA: Aerospace
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b. 26 August 1740 Vidalon-lès-Annonay, France
d. 26 June 1810 Balaruc-les-Bains, France
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French ballooning pioneer who, with his brother Jacques-Etienne (b. 6 January 1745 Vidalon-lès-Annonay, France; d. 2 August 1799, Serriers, France), built the first balloon to carry passengers on a "free" flight.
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Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier were papermakers of Annonay, near Lyon. Joseph made the first experiments' after studying smoke rising from a fire and assuming that the smoke contained a gas which was lighter than air: of course, this lighter-than-air gas was just hot air. Using fine silk he made a small balloon with an aperture in its base, then, by burning paper beneath this aperture, he filled the balloon with hot air and it rose to the ceiling. Jacques-Etienne joined his brother in further experiments and they progressed to larger hot-air balloons until, by October 1783, they had constructed one large enough to lift two men on tethered ascents. In the same month Joseph-Michel delivered a paper at the University of Lyon on his experiments for a propulsive system by releasing gas through an opening in the side of a balloon; unfortunately, there was not enough pressurefor an effective jet. Then, on 21 November 1783, the scientist Pilâtre de Rozier and the Marquis d'Arlandes ascended on a "free" flight in a Montgolfier balloon. They departed from the grounds of a château in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris on what was to be the world's first aerial journey, covering 9 km (5/2 miles) in 25 minutes.
Ballooning became a popular spectacle with initial rivalry between the hot-air Montgolfières and the hydrogen-filled Charlières of J.A.C. Charles. Interest in hot-air balloons subsided, but was revived in the 1960s by an American, Paul E. Yost. His propane-gas burner to provide hot-air was a great advance on the straw-burning fire-basket of the Montgolfiers.
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Principal Honours and Distinctions
Légion d'honneur.
Further Reading
C.C.Gillispie, 1983, The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation 1783–1784, Princeton, NJ (one of the publications to commemorate the bicentenary of the Montgolfiers).
L.T.C.Rolt, 1966, The Aeronauts, London (describes the history of balloons). C.Dollfus, 1961, Balloons, London.
JDS

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

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  • Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel — • Inventor; b. at Vidalon lez Annonay, 26 August, 1740; d. at Balaruc les Bains, France, 26 June, 1810 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Montgolfier, Joseph Michel      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Montgolfier,Joseph Michel — Mont·gol·fier (mŏnt gŏlʹfē ər, môɴ gôl fyāʹ), Joseph Michel. 1740 1810. French aeronautic inventor who with his brother Jacques Étienne (1745 1799) built and ascended in the first practical hot air balloon (1783). * * * …   Universalium

  • Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne — ▪ French aviators also called the  Montgolfier brothers  Respectively,   born Aug. 26, 1740, Annonay, France died June 26, 1810, Balaruc les Bains born Jan. 6, 1745, Annonay, France died Aug. 2, 1799, enroute from Lyon to Annonay   French… …   Universalium

  • Joseph Michel Montgolfier — Die Brüder Joseph Michel Montgolfier (* 26. August 1740 in Annonay bei Lyon, † 26. Juni 1810 in Balaruc les Bains) und Jacques Étienne Montgolfier (* 6. Januar 1745 in Annonay, † 2. August 1799) waren die …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph-Michel Montgolfier —     Joseph Michel Montgolfier     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Joseph Michel Montgolfier     Inventor; b. at Vidalon lez Annonay, Department of Ardèche, France, 26 August, 1740; d. at Balaruc les Bains, Department of Hérault, France, 26 June, 1810.… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Joseph-Michel Montgolfier — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Montgolfier. Joseph Montgolfier Joseph Michel Montgolfier est né le 26 août 1740 à Vidalon lès Annonay en Ardèche Il est mort le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel; and Montgolfier, Jacques-Étienne — born Aug. 26, 1740, Annonay, France died June 26, 1810, Balaruc les Bains born Jan. 6, 1745, Annonay, France died Aug. 2, 1799, enroute from Lyon to Annonay French designers of the hot air balloon. The brothers discovered that heated air… …   Universalium

  • Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel y Montgolfier, Jacques-Étienne — (26 ago. 1740, Annonay, Francia–26 jun. 1810, Balaruc les Bains) (6 ene. 1745, Annonay, Francia–2 ago. 1799, en camino de Lyon a Annonay). Diseñadores franceses del globo de aire caliente. Estos hermanos descubrieron que el aire recalentado… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Montgolfier-Brüder — Joseph Michel Montgolfier Die Brüder Joseph Michel Montgolfier (* 26. August 1740 in Annonay bei Lyon, † 26. Juni 1810 in Balaruc les Bains) und Jacques Étienne Montgolfier (* 6. Januar 1745 in Annonay, † 2. August 1799) waren die …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Montgolfier — Joseph Michel Montgolfier Joseph Montgolfier Joseph Michel Montgolfier est né le 26 août 1740 à Vidalon lès Annonay en Ardèche Il est mort le 26 juin 1810 à Balaruc les Bains dans l Hérault) Avec son frère Jacques Etienne plus …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Michel — Michel, Hartmut * * * (as used in expressions) Adanson, Michel Aflaq, Michel Claude Michel Crèvecoeur, Michel Guillaume Saint Jean de Debré, Michel (Jean Pierre) Fokine, Michel Foucault, Michel (Paul) La Galissonnière, Roland Michel Barrin,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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